Theses and Dissertations

Issuing Body

Mississippi State University


Dooley, Katherine

Committee Member

Morse, David T.

Committee Member

Goldberg, Rebecca M.

Committee Member

Coats, Linda T.

Date of Degree


Document Type

Dissertation - Open Access


Counselor Education

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D)


College of Education


Department of Counseling, Educational Psychology and Foundations


In psychiatric settings, the use of seclusion and/or restraints can be emotionally and psychologically traumatizing for patients. Patients often experience these interventions as inhumane and humiliating, and such interventions can have physical and mental adverse effects and in some cases can be fatal. This study examined the role of demographic, clinical, and hospital variables in predicting seclusion and/or restraint episodes in adult psychiatric inpatients. A total of 395 patients were included in the study. Adult psychiatric inpatients previously restrained (n = 91) were compared to psychiatric inpatients never restrained (n = 304). A binary logistic regression research design was used to examine the relationship of demographic variables, clinical variables, and hospital variables on the likelihood of being placed in seclusion or restraints. The results yielded age as a significant predictor for patients being restrained. Also, individuals diagnosed with bipolar disorder were less likely to experience a seclusion and/or restraint event than patients diagnosed with depressive disorder or within the schizophrenia spectrum. In addition, findings suggest that adult psychiatric inpatients that experienced restraint episodes were restrained within the 1st month of admission, during the weekday and during the 1st shift. In summary, given the findings from this study, knowledge of risk factors that precede patient restraint could enhance education and provide staff with information necessary to meet the clinical needs of the psychiatric inpatient population. Research indicates that the use of seclusion and restraint has decreased followed by implementation of educational programs designed to help staff assess patient clinical care needs and develop more therapeutically appropriate alternatives (Bower et al., 2003). By being aware of possible risk factors associated with seclusion and/or restraint, mental health providers can use early intervention and prevention strategies to reduce the use of seclusion and/or restraint. This would provide safer environments for mental health patients receiving treatment.