Theses and Dissertations

Issuing Body

Mississippi State University


Byrd, Sylvia H.

Committee Member

Fountain, Brent J.

Committee Member

Cossman, Jeralynn S.

Committee Member

Schilling, M. Wes

Committee Member

Gerard, Patrick D.

Date of Degree


Original embargo terms

MSU Only Indefinitely

Document Type

Dissertation - Campus Access Only



Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


College of Agriculture and Life Sciences


Department of Food Science, Nutrition and Health Promotion


Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a condition affecting over one third of U.S. adults and is characterized by risk factors that promote inflammation and result in chronic disease. Indicated by high visceral adiposity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and hypertension, MetS has been associated with increased risk for future cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and all-cause mortality. Recognizing the need for population-specific dietary and lifestyle guidance is crucial for reversing the exponential growth in chronic diseases. Self-reported behavior and directly measured anthropometric and laboratory data from 4,627 adults in the 2007-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. The objectives were 1) determine the prevalence of MetS using the AHA/NHLBI criteria for specific cohorts in U.S. adults 2) determine whether macronutrient composition, micronutrient adequacy and energy balance differ between adults age 20-59 with and without MetS 3) investigate dietary patterns reported using food groups and their relationships with MetS in adults age 20-59. Agejusted prevalence of MetS was 36.8 percent (95 percent CI 34.7 percent-39.0 percent). Prevalence increased with age groups and BMI categories. Odds Ratios (OR) for MetS compared to normal weight were 4.33 (95 percent CI 3.43-5.47) for overweight individuals and 17.98 (95 percent CI 13.29-24.31) for obese individuals. Average daily moderate activity was 45 minutes less in adults with MetS (p<0.05). Within races, black women had a higher prevalence of MetS than black men (p<0.05) and white men had a higher prevalence than white women (p<0.05). Overall, there were few clinically significant differences in nutrient intake between those with and without MetS in race/gender cohorts, however nutrient intake differed between cohorts. Nutrient intake relative to caloric needs was lower in those with MetS, which may suggest lower metabolic rate than predicted. White men and women consumed more of most food groups than the other races. Women with MetS consumed more meat, seafood and eggs, and solid fat and less legumes, nuts, and seeds and grains than women without MetS (p<0.05). Men without MetS consumed more alcohol than men with MetS (p<0.05). Dietary intake was not predictive of MetS, however total volume of physical activity and BMI are factors that can be modified.