Theses and Dissertations

Issuing Body

Mississippi State University


Henington, Carlen

Committee Member

Doggett, Anthony

Committee Member

Hall, Kim

Committee Member

Devlin, Sandy

Committee Member

McCleon, Tawny

Date of Degree


Original embargo terms

MSU Only Indefinitely

Document Type

Dissertation - Campus Access Only


Educational Psychology

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


College of Education


Department of Counseling and Educational Psychology


The purpose of this study was to empirically evaluate the effects of a positive peer reporting package, namely the “Duck, Duck Tootle Intervention Program” on on-task behavior of target students and classwide on-task behavior. An ABAB withdrawal design was used to evaluate the effects of the tootling package on classwide and target students’ rates of positive peer reporting and on-task behavior. Cluster sampling was employed to select a total of 10 classes for this study. Five intact regular education elementary classrooms were chosen across grade levels to serve as the experimental group. Two target students identified by each classroom teacher as having behavior and/or academic difficulties were participants in the study. This 21-day intervention was implemented in a Chapter I elementary school, located within a low-income suburb in a large metropolitan area in the southwestern United States. The students were in kindergarten through fourth grade and ranged in age from 5 to 9.6 years. Specific target behaviors were identified for each participant (e.g. out-of-place behavior, inappropriate noise). The collected data for each of the 10 elementary school target students in this study included (a) percentage of on-task behavior, (b) percentage of target behavior, and (c) individual tootle counts. Also included in data collection were classwide tootle counts. Teacher procedural integrity data was also obtained. Results revealed that during the tootling intervention phase, in which group contingency and feedback procedures were implemented, on-task behavior increased and the mean number of individual and classwide tootles increased. Decreases in on-task behavior and mean tootles were observed during the second baseline phase. Limitations associated with the current study, implications for implementation in alternative education settings and future research are discussed.



positive peer reporting||peer monitoring||on-task behavior||tootling package