Theses and Dissertations


Lishu Yin

Issuing Body

Mississippi State University


Hare, R. Dwight

Committee Member

Hamil, Burnette

Committee Member

Xu, Jianzong

Committee Member

Watson, Joshua

Committee Member

Johnson, C. W.

Date of Degree


Document Type

Dissertation - Open Access


Curriculum and Instruction

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


College of Education


Department of Curriculum and Instruction


The enrollment of English as a Second Language (ESL) students from Pre-K through Grade 12 increased 65% over a 10-year period from the 1993-1994 to the 2003-2004 school year. The number of ESL students in 2003-2004 was 10.1% of the total public school enrollment. ESL students are placed in different educational programs. Pullout programs have served low readers including English language learners (ELL). In the last 10 years, inclusion programs have gradually replaced pullout programs in some states. Little research has been conducted on the effectiveness of ESL programs on reading achievement. This study compared the improvements in reading of Grades 1 and 2 ESL students over two consecutive school years (2004-2006) in pullout programs and inclusion programs in a Midwest inner-city school district with a large population of ESL students. Additionally, strengths and weaknesses of each program as described by teachers were compared. Furthermore, teachers? frustrations and struggles in each program were examined as well. The results of descriptive analysis and ANCOVA indicate that type of program (pullout or inclusion) did not result in a statistical difference in ESL students? reading achievement. Two models for each program were found to be used in the school district. The results indicate that the guided reading approach was used in both programs and ESL students were instructed in small group setting, but the inclusion programs used longer instruction time than the pullout program. Scheduling in inclusion programs was easier than in pullout program. Teachers did not feel overloaded in either program. Interviewed teachers report students did not feel bothered by being pulled out; instead, they felt honored. Paraprofessionals were used in the classrooms to lead small groups during the reading block in inclusion programs, but they were sent to the classrooms to work with ESL students during the time of math, science, or social study in pullout programs. Teachers in inclusion programs did not worry about students missing anything, and every student?s needs were met. Collaboration and communication between teachers and resource teachers were the key to successfully operating either program, but they did not happen effortlessly.



ANCOVA||ELL||collaboration||ESL||reading achievement||inclusion||pullout