Theses and Dissertations

Issuing Body

Mississippi State University


Schilling, M. Wes

Committee Member

Ma, Din-Pow

Committee Member

Silva, Juan L.

Committee Member

Williams, J. Byron

Committee Member

Xiong, Youling L.

Date of Degree


Original embargo terms

MSU Only Indefinitely

Document Type

Dissertation - Campus Access Only


Food Science, Nutrition and Health Promotion

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


College of Agriculture and Life Sciences


Department of Food Science, Nutrition and Health Promotion


Fresh pork sausages were prepared from prerigor meat with synthetic antioxidants and combinations of Rosemary (R: 1500, 2000, 2500 ppm) and Green tea (G: 100, 200, 300 ppm) extracts. Experimental controls contained synthetic antioxidants only. A randomized complete block design with a factorial arrangement involving ten treatment combinations, three frozen storage periods (0.5, 3, 6 mos) and four retail display times (0, 7, 14, 21 d) was utilized. Secondary lipid oxidation products were reduced (P < 0.05) in treatments with higher amounts of R compared with the control across all frozen storage periods. Higher concentrations of both plant extracts led to increased (P < 0.05)CIE a* (redness) andCIE b* (yellowness) and decreased (P < 0.05) CIE L* (lightness) up to 6 mos of storage. Higher concentrations of R enhanced chroma and delayed discoloration throughout 14 d of retail display after 3 and 6 mos of storage. Combinations of R2500+G100 inhibited (P < 0.05) microbial growth compared with the control throughout retail display. Higher levels of R and G showed higher (P < 0.05) concentrations of spice-derived terpenes alpha-pinene, camphene, and isopulegol up to 3 mos of storage. Incorporation of R resulted in lower (P < 0.05) concentrations of lipid or microbial degradation products 2,4-decadienal, 2-butanone, and methanethiol following 3 mos of storage. Higher levels of G showed lower (P < 0.05) concentrations for 3-methyl-1-butanol and methyl isovalerate after 6 mos of storage. Natural plant extract addition led to higher (P < 0.05) consumer acceptability scores and were liked by >80% of the respondents across all frozen storage periods. The control displayed spoilage and detectable rancidity by day 7 following 6 mos of storage. Pork, nutmeg, ginger, and spice complex aromas were higher (P < 0.05) in sausages with increased concentrations of R following 0.5 and 3 mos of storage. Caramelized aroma followed a similar trend for treatments with a higher G content. Ginger, copper-herbal, rancid, offlavor and off-odor descriptors which were lower (P < 0.05) in sausages containing increased G concentrations. The use of R2500+G300 improved quality over time when the product was stored frozen for 6 mos.



shelf-life||green tea extract||rosemary extract||pork sausage