Theses and Dissertations


Xufang Zhang

Issuing Body

Mississippi State University


Sun, Changyou

Committee Member

Gordon, Jason S.

Committee Member

Li, Cheng

Committee Member

Munn, Ian A.

Date of Degree


Document Type

Dissertation - Open Access


Forest Resources

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


College of Forest Resources


Department of Forestry


With accelerating globalization, many industries have faced continuous pressure from rising importation. In the forest products industry, international trade has been intervened by either a tariff on roundwood or a temporary trade barrier on wood and paper products. In this dissertation, three studies are conducted to examine the patterns and impacts of these tariffs and trade barriers. In the first study, the adoption of antidumping and countervailing duty as a temporary trade barrier on forest products trade is examined. Initially, a two-step sample selection model is employed to identify determinants of trade barrier imposition by all the countries, and additionally, by developing countries as a group. Furthermore, the effects in paper and non-paper products are separately assessed by a probit regression. The results reveal that countries with high gross domestic products per capita can file more investigations than others. For these countries with petitions, they are found to be cautious to employ temporary trade barriers, as their attention shifts from the inefficiencies of domestic firms to unfair trade actions of foreign exporters. In the second study, outcomes of antidumping and countervailing petitions and their determinants are analyzed. The outcomes from preliminary and final investigations are separately evaluated by either a binary logistic model or a multinomial logistic model. The results reveal that more affirmative injury decisions exist if petitions initiated after 2000. Since the U.S. has announced the Byrd Amendment in 2000 to protect domestic firms, the trade environment is competitive. In addition, higher-income countries are associated with less affirmative decisions on petitions because of cooperation and retaliation. In the third study, the interaction between tariffs on roundwood and temporary trade barriers on forest products is assessed. A two-stage partial equilibrium displacement model is applied to measure the vertical linkage between roundwood and wood/paper products by estimating endogenous prices, quantities, and the change of welfare after imposing trade barriers. Tariffs on roundwood and temporary trade barriers on forest products are found to have a positive total welfare impact. The implementation of temporary trade barriers on forest products brings a higher welfare change than imposing tariffs on roundwood.



trade barriers||tariffs||antidumping||cuntervailing||determinants||investigation outcome||partial equilibrium||forest products industry