Theses and Dissertations

Issuing Body

Mississippi State University

Advisor

Lewis, Edwin A.

Committee Member

Sygula, Andrezej

Committee Member

Emerson, Joseph P.

Committee Member

Mead, Keith T.

Committee Member

Fitzkee, Nicholas C.

Date of Degree

1-1-2016

Document Type

Dissertation - Open Access

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy

College

College of Arts and Sciences

Abstract

Molecular recognition, particularly as it applies to strong binding interactions between complementary ligand/receptor molecules in solution, is important in such varied areas as molecular biology, pharmacology, synthetic chemistry, and chemical detection. Strong binding is the additive result of a number of specific, weak, non-covalent interactions occurring between complementary molecules. This dissertation reports on the energetics of forming complexes between small molecules and model DNA constructs. Ligands included cationic and metallated cationic porphyrins and polyheterocyclic ruthenium compounds. DNA receptors included double stranded B-DNAs (hairpin and short linear sequences) as well G-quadruplex DNAs. Thermodynamic data were collected using isothermal titration calorimetry, circular dichroism spectropolarimetry, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. The measured thermodynamic parameters included the changes in free energy, enthalpy and entropy for ligand/receptor complex formation as well as the stoichiometry of the stable complexes. The first section of this dissertation reports that the binding of cationic porphyrins to model G-quadruplex DNA may proceed through two pathways, end stacking and intercalation. Modulating the number of pyridinium groups on a pyridinium substituted porphyrin yielded differing binding thermodynamics leading to the understanding that a balance of surface area, charge, and geometry affect the ability of a porphyrin to bind to G-quadruplex DNA. Further investigations into the binding of metallated porphyrins developed the understanding that the geometry of the central metal ion affected not only the thermodynamics but could also inhibit the intercalative mode. It was previously shown that the high affinity binding for binuclear polyheterocyclic ruthenium compounds proceeds through an intercalative mode. To further understand the binding process and the structureunction relationship of the ligand components, the binding of smaller mononuclear complexes that were representative of portions of the binuclear complex was examined in this dissertation. While limiting the intercalative ability lowered the binding affinity, the mononuclear complex with the full intercalating bridge was able bind to DNA with a higher affinity than the binuclear complex. These studies have been successful in part in determining the contributions of numerous weak interactions including: charge (Coulombic interactions), H-bonding, hydrophobic interactions, and solvent structure (solvation changes), to the overall energetics of this molecular recognition process. The first section of this dissertation reports that the binding of cationic porphyrins to model G-quadruplex DNA may proceed through two pathways, end stacking and intercalation. Modulating the number of pyridinium groups on a pyridinium substituted porphyrin yielded differing binding thermodynamics leading to the understanding that a balance of surface area, charge, and geometry affect the ability of a porphyrin to bind to G-quadruplex DNA. Further investigations into the binding of metallated porphyrins developed the understanding that the geometry of the central metal ion affected not only the thermodynamics but could also inhibit the intercalative mode. It was previously shown that the high affinity binding for binuclear polyheterocyclic ruthenium compounds proceeds through intercalation. To further understand the binding process and the structureunction relationship of the ligand components, the binding of smaller mononuclear complexes that were representative of portions of the binuclear complex was examined in this dissertation. While limiting the intercalative ability lowered the binding affinity, the mononuclear complex with the full intercalating bridge was able bind to DNA with a higher affinity than the binuclear complex. These studies have been successful in part in determining the contributions of numerous weak interactions including: charge (Coulombic interactions), H-bonding, hydrophobic interactions, and solvent structure (solvation changes), to the overall energetics of this molecular recognition process.

URI

https://hdl.handle.net/11668/19952

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