Theses and Dissertations

Issuing Body

Mississippi State University


Williams, Frankie K.

Committee Member

Blendinger, Jack G.

Committee Member

King, Stephanie B.

Committee Member

Xu, Jianzhong

Date of Degree


Document Type

Dissertation - Open Access


Elementary, Middle, and Secondary Education Administration

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


College of Education


Department of Educational Leadership


The purpose of this study was to use a single subject research design to examine the effects of immediate feedback and delayed feedback within the Math to Mastery Intervention Package. The participants were 6 elementary school students who were performing approximately 1 year below grade level in math. A combined simple phase change design was used for the study. 3 of the students experienced the design in the A/B/A/C order, while the other 3 students experienced the design in a reversed order for B and C. During this study, ‘A’ represented the baseline phase and the return to baseline phase, ‘B’ represented the immediate feedback intervention phase, and ‘C’ represented the delayed feedback intervention phase. Each feedback phase was implemented separately for up to 4 weeks for each student. The final phase of intervention for each student included use of the most effective intervention condition after the student was exposed to both intervention feedback conditions. 2 weeks after the best intervention, follow-ups were conducted to determine if the students were able to maintain the skills that they were taught during the intervention. Results revealed that both intervention conditions were successful for addressing deficits in math academic performance. Improvement was seen for all 6 students with increases in digits correct per minute on single skill math worksheets, single skill math progress worksheets, and multiple skill math progress worksheets. Implications for school leadership within school settings are provided.