Theses and Dissertations

Issuing Body

Mississippi State University


El Kadiri, Haitham

Committee Member

Oppedal, Andrew L.

Committee Member

Chen, Lei

Committee Member

Shamsaei, Nima

Committee Member

Whittington, Wilburn

Date of Degree


Document Type

Dissertation - Open Access


Mechanical Engineering

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


James Worth Bagley College of Engineering


Department of Mechanical Engineering


The origin of texture components associated with rare-earth (RE) element additions in wrought magnesium (Mg) alloys is a long-standing problem in magnesium technology. The objective of this research is to identify the mechanisms accountable for rare-earth texture during dynamic recrystallization (DRX). Towards this end, we designed binary Mg-Cerium and Mg-Gadolinium alloys along with complex alloy compositions containing zinc, yttrium and Mischmetal. Binary alloys along with pure Mg were designed to individually investigate their effects on texture evolutions, while complex compositions are designed to develop randomized texture, and be used in automotive and aerospace applications. We selected indirect extrusion to thermomechanically process our materials. Different extrusion ratios and speeds were designed to produce partially and fully recrystallized microstructures, allowing us to analyze DRX from its early stages to completion. X-ray diffraction, electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to conduct microstructure and texture analyses Our analyses revealed that rare-earth elements in zinc-containing magnesium alloys promote discontinuous dynamic recrystallization at the grain boundaries. During nucleation, the effect of rare earth elements on orientation selection was explained by the concomitant actions of multiple Taylor axes in the same grain. Isotropic grain growth was observed due to rare earth elements segregating to grain boundaries, which lead to texture randomization. The nucleation in binary Mg-RE alloys took place by continuous formation of necklace structures. Stochastic relaxation of basal and non-basal dislocations into lowangle grain boundaries produced chains of embryos with nearly random orientations. Schmid factor analysis showed a lower net activation of dislocations in RE textured grains compared to ones on the other side of the stereographic triangle. Lower dislocation densities within RE grains favored their growth by setting the boundary migration direction toward grains with higher dislocation density, thereby decreasing the system energy. We investigated the influence of RE elements on extension twinning induced hardening. RE addition enhanced tensile twinning induced hardening significantly. EBSD analysis illustrated that tensile twins cross low angle grain boundaries in Mg-RE alloys, which produced large twins and facilitated transmutation of basal to prismatic dislocations. Higher activity of pyramidal II dislocations in Mg-RE alloys resulted in higher twinning induced hardening.