Theses and Dissertations

Issuing Body

Mississippi State University


Dinh, Thu T.N.

Committee Member

Schilling, M. Wes

Committee Member

Burnett, Derris

Committee Member

Coatney, Kalyn T.

Committee Member

Kim, Taejo

Date of Degree


Document Type

Dissertation - Open Access


Agricultural Science (Animal and Dairy Science)

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


College of Agriculture and Life Sciences


Department of Animal and Dairy Sciences


The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of deboning time (pre- and post-rigor), processing steps (grinding - GB; salting - SB; batter formulation - BB), and storage time on the microbiological, technological, sensory, and willingness-to-pay attributes of beef sausage. Using the chuck primals from 5 24-month-old Holstein steers, beef was deboned within 2 h post-mortem (pre-rigor) or 72 h (post-rigor) and processed to sausages using beef bratwurst spice mix, water/ice slurry, corn syrup, erythorbate, nitrite, salt, and 0.25% w/w sodium tripolyphosphate and a typical cooking cycle ending at 74 ¡ãC. Samples were collected during grinding, salting, batter formulation, and storage of cooked sausages. Beef deboning time did not influence bacterial counts (P ¡Ý 0.138). However, salting of raw ground beef resulted in a 0.4-log reduction in both aerobic plate count and Salmonella (P ¡Ü 0.001). Lactic acid bacteria increased from 0.5 log on d 0 to 3.8 log on d 120 of vacuum storage (P ¡Ü 0.019). The pH was greater in pre-rigor GB and SB than in post-rigor GB and SB (P < 0.001). However, deboning time had no effect on metmyoglobin reducing activity, cooking loss, and color of raw beef mixtures. Protein solubility of pre-rigor SB (124.3 mg/kg) tended to be greater than that of post-rigor SB (113.9 mg/kg; P = 0.071). TBARS were greater in BB but decreased during vacuum storage of cooked sausage (P ¡Ü 0.018). With the exception of chewiness and saltiness being 52.9 N-mm and 0.3 points greater in post-rigor sausage (P = 0.040 and 0.054, respectively), instrumental texture profile analysis and descriptive sensory analysis detected no difference between pre- and post-rigor sausages (P ¡Ý 0.153). Consumers preferred the aroma, flavor, and overall acceptability of pre-rigor sausage when compared to post-rigor sausage (P = 0.008, 0.029, and 0.011, respectively). Average predicted demand was 0.7 lb greater for pre-rigor than post-rigor sausage at any price point from $1/lb to $10/lb (P ¡Ü 0.001).