Theses and Dissertations

Issuing Body

Mississippi State University


Haque, Z. Zee

Committee Member

Tidwell, Diane K.

Committee Member

Williams, J. Byron

Committee Member

Silva, Juan L.

Committee Member

Nannapaneni, Ramakrishna

Date of Degree


Document Type

Dissertation - Open Access


Food Science and Technology

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


College of Agriculture and Life Sciences


Department of Food Science, Nutrition and Health Promotion


Edam and Cheddar whey were thermized (T) for different time periods (5–30 min) at 70 degrees Celsius, vacuum evaporated, and spray dried to obtain whey powders (WP). Native and thermized WP were evaluated for antioxidative properties. Edam and Cheddar WP significantly reduced thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and peroxide value (PV) in ferric-catalyzed soybean oil emulsions. Thermization significantly improved antioxidative properties of WP with 5T, 10T, and 15T treatments showing better protective effects compared to 20T and 30T treatments. Based on these results, native (0T) and thermized (5T, 10T, and 15T) Edam and Cheddar WP coatings, with and without enzymatically hydrolyzed casein (CH), were used to reduce oxidative degradation and moisture loss of cubed beef steak and pork loin. Thermized treatments significantly reduced TBARS and PV in both types of meat, with CH containing treatments showing enhanced antioxidative properties. Protein oxidation as reflected by carbonyl formation and a decrease in sulfhydryls was also reduced by thermization. Treated and native WP coatings significantly reduced moisture loss of meat samples. Cubed beef steak treated with Cheddar WP coatings were evaluated for microbiological quality and basic sensory attributes. Although not statistically significant, 5T, 10T, and 10TCH treatments numerically showed potential for microbial reduction up to 4 days of storage. Sensory evaluation showed significant protection of key sensory attributes by treatments throughout the storage period when compared to controls with the 5 min thermization showing the best effect on lowering offlavor development based on sensory scores. The effect of pH and glucomannan (GM) on antioxidative properties of thermized (5T) Cheddar WP coatings applied to catfish fillets was also investigated. Coatings at pH 7.0, 7.5, and 8.0 (with GM) showed markedly greater protection against oxidative degradation compared to coatings without GM, as reflected by TBARS values and PV after 7 days of storage. Carbonyl formation and oxidation of sulfhydryl groups were also significantly reduced by coatings containing GM. Cheddar WP-based edible coatings (pH 7.0–8.0) with GM markedly reduced lipid oxidation and protein oxidation of fresh catfish fillets.