Mississippi State University
Follett, Randolph F.
Date of Degree
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Dissertation - Open Access
Electrical and Computer Engineering
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D)
James Worth Bagley College of Engineering
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
Solar photovoltaic (PV) is the fastest-growing energy resource. The price of energy generation from residential PV has dropped from $0.50 to $0.10 per kWh in the past decade. One challenge with this resource is that the amount of power available depends on the solar irradiance and temperature. Abrupt changes in solar irradiance can cause disturbances to the hosting electricity network and lead to voltage and frequency oscillations. The impact is more severe in a weak grid with high penetration of such resources. Evolving grid interconnection standards are imposing requirements to limit the impacts of these disturbances on the grid. Battery energy storage (BES) technology has also experienced a significant price drop (e.g., from $1100 to $156 per kWh for lithium-ion batteries) in the past decade. Therefore, complementary PV+BES solutions are increasingly considered. A BES of sufficient capacity equipped with appropriate controls can respond to both abrupt and long-term PV power variations. Properly formulating the problem and developing efficient control systems is crucial. These define the scope and objective of this research. This research develops two BES solutions. In the first one, the BES is co-located with the PV and connects to its dc output terminals. The BES controller ensures that the PV+BES system exhibits a desirable power ramp rate set by the user. In the second solution, the BES is not co-located with the PV. It detects the disturbances from their signatures on its locally measured signals and takes proper actions. An approach based on capacitor emulation combined with a droop mechanism is developed and optimally designed to provide dynamic and static supports. The BES can respond to the disturbances from more than one PV system and non-PV sources, such as load disturbances. The dissertation presents detailed modeling and control of the BES system. Optimal control techniques are developed to ensure robust and fast responses. For the simulation study, the proposed BES systems are implemented in a hybrid dc/ac study system and the effect on both dc and ac subsystems are investigated. The real-time results obtained by implementing the proposed controllers on laboratory-scale hardware prototypes are also presented.
Partly funded by NSF Grant (Award Number: 1808368)
Sharma, Roshan, "Applications of battery energy storage to mitigate disturbances and uncertainties in power systems with high penetration of renewable energy resources" (2021). Theses and Dissertations. 5142.