Theses and Dissertations

Issuing Body

Mississippi State University


Paul, Varun

Committee Member

Kirkland, Brenda

Committee Member

Gabitov, Rinat

Date of Degree


Document Type

Graduate Thesis - Open Access



Degree Name

Master of Science (M.S.)


College of Arts and Sciences


Department of Geosciences


Mississippi Valley Type (MVT) lead and zinc deposits provide a significant source of sedimentary galena and sphalerite. However, geochemical characteristics and genesis including the source and production of hydrogen sulfide required for galena and sphalerite ore formation and the reasoning for quick, episodic mineralization is not fully understood. By simulating regional MVT brines, the input and effect of biological by-products during the development of these ores as well as the cause of cyclicity within MVT deposits have been observed. Experiments using compositions from MVT fluid inclusions were conducted over two-week periods. Variables during the experiments included temperature, CO2, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), lead and zinc. Removal of H2S at 70 oC caused no sulfide precipitation. Conclusions of this study are that fluid mixing or in-situ sulfur reduction by thermochemical or biogenic means are the primary mechanisms of MVT deposition, while at low temperatures biogenic sulfur reduction is the main driver.