Theses and Dissertations

Issuing Body

Mississippi State University


Henry, William P.

Committee Member

Sygula, Andrzej

Committee Member

Gwaltney, Steven R.

Committee Member

Emerson, Joseph P.

Committee Member

Mlsna, Todd E.

Date of Degree


Document Type

Dissertation - Open Access



Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


College of Arts and Sciences


Department of Chemistry


Flavonols are hydroxyl-substituted flavonoids and naturally occur as secondary metabolites in plants. Several studies have discovered extensive medicinal properties of flavonols. The present work reports on structural and functional investigation of the B ring substituted flavonols based on spectroscopic and electrochemical techniques. The purpose of this study is to determine the influence of the B ring substitutions on the hydrogen bonding interactions, the electronic effects in ruthenium complexes and the Al3+ chelation of B ring substituted flavonols. The electronic effects of the B rings were changed by introducing methyl, methoxy and nitro groups at position 4ʹ on the B ring. The 3ʹ-methyl substitution was performed in order to increase the electronic density of the B ring via inductive effects. The 2ʹ-methyl and 2ʹ, 6ʹ-dimethyl substitutions increased the steric effects around the inter-ring bond between the B and the C rings, and the B ring was highly deconjugated from the AC rings. The intramolecular hydrogen bonding distances at 3-hydroxy-4-carbonyl units of the B ring substituted flavonols were elongated while the dihedral angles between the B and AC increased. Strong intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions were also observed in the crystal structures of 4ʹ-methylflavonol, 4ʹ-methoxyflavonol, 4ʹ-nitroflavonol and 2ʹ,6ʹ-dimethylflavonol. Furthermore, several crystal packing patterns were observed, and it is postulated that dihedral angles and intramolecular hydrogen bonding distances are both affected by the intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions and the crystal packing forces. In addition, the ruthenium complexes of B ring substituted flavonols were synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic and electrochemical techniques. B ring substitution effects were minimal in IR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. The levels of the conjugation of the rutheniumlavonolate complexes were demonstrated by electronic absorption spectra recorded in methanol at room temperature. The most positive oxidation potential was obtained with the electron withdrawing nitro group substitution, and the electron donating substitutions resulted in more negative oxidation potentials. The spectroscopic investigation of the complex formation of Al(III) with flavonols and 3-hydroxychromone is described. The stoichiometric composition and stability constants are also given. The comparison of the results obtained from Al(III) chelation shows significant effects of the B ring substitutions.