Theses and Dissertations


Xiaomei Liu

Issuing Body

Mississippi State University


Wan, Hui

Committee Member

Borazjani, Abdolhamid

Committee Member

DuBienm Janice

Committee Member

Zhang, Jilei

Committee Member

Shmulsky, Rubin

Date of Degree


Document Type

Dissertation - Open Access


Sustainable Bioproducts

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D)


College of Forest Resources


Department of Sustainable Bioproducts


The objective of this study is to develop a fast curing phenolic formaldehyde (PF) and polymeric diphenyl methane isocyanate (MDI) based hybrid resin system for wood products applications. Various formulas of PF resins were synthesized with different formaldehyde to phenol ratio, sodium hydroxide to phenol and isocyanate group (-NCO) to hydroxyl group (-OH) molar ratios. The shear bonding strength property was used to evaluate and optimize the formulations by appropriate sample preparation. The optimized resins were characterized by rheometer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and other methods. In order to eliminate the influence of hydroxyl groups from water in the PF resin, a frozen dried method was applied to remove the water while keeping PF resin in liquid state. Acetone was used to disperse the hybrid co-polymer to improve the mobility of the mixture of frozen dried PF resins and MDI. An unexpected phenomenon was observed when the two resins were mixed in acetone and a sharp reaction occurred. This led to an assumption that acetone promoted the curing of hybrid resin. The effect of acetone on the curing behavior of hybrid resin was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) and other techniques. It was confirmed that acetone promoted the curing of the co-polymer system. The gel time of hybrid resin with acetone decreases sharply compared to that of pure phenolic resin and original hybrid resin. Acetone also helped the hybrid resin to have better penetration behavior by improving the mobility and this also resulted in less variation of the strength distribution. Finally, lap shear samples were prepared at room temperature curing commercial polyurethane (PU), phenol-resorcinolormaldehyde resin (PRF) and laboratory made hybrid resins based on PF and MDI to compare the shear strength of different resins under different application conditions. The strength reduction of frozen dried PF with acetone/MDI is the lowest in humidity, temperature and humidity-temperature conditions. With just humidity condition, its shear strength reduction is significantly lower than that of any other resins including the solid wood control.