Sinclair, Colleen H.

Committee Member

Drumheller, Philip

Committee Member

Fee, E. Virginia

Date of Degree


Document Type

Graduate Thesis - Open Access

Degree Name

Master of Science


College of Arts and Sciences


Department of Psychology


The present study focused on establishing the reliability and validity of the Enemy Impact Inventory ? Revised (EII-R) and integrating basic needs theory in the development of the scale. The data supported that enemies can have both a negative and positive influences on: (a) our self-regard, (b) our relationships, (c) our ability to attain goals, (d) our ability to trust, and (e) our ability to feel in control of our lives. The overall reliability of the Enemy Impact Inventory (EII-R) was .87. The reliabilities for the individual negative and positive halves of the EII-R were .92 and .95 respectively. Also, all subscales within the EII-R yielded reliabilities above .82. Low to moderate correlations with existing measures confirmed the discriminant validity of the EII-R. Accordingly, the results of the present study contribute to the field by offering a sound, theory-grounded measure of the quality of enemyships unseen thus far in the literature.



enemies||relationships||enemy impact||scale development||social psychology