Theses and Dissertations

Issuing Body

Mississippi State University


Brown, Richard L.

Committee Member

Outlaw, Diana C.

Committee Member

Baker, Gerald T.

Committee Member

Goddard, Jerome

Date of Degree


Document Type

Graduate Thesis - Open Access

Degree Name

Master of Science


College of Agriculture and Life Sciences


A comprehensive review of whole mount staining revealed an enhanced staining method to improve visibility of morphological structures. Ultimately, five factors vital to stain quality were identified, with pH being a primary factor. Phylogenetic relationships of all 22 tribes of Tortricidae, representing 57 genera and 78 species (distributed in Neotropical, Nearctic, Palearctic, Oriental, and Australian regions), were investigated based on 52 morphological characters, including incorporation of 27 novel non-traditional characters of the endo- and exoskeleton. The phylogenetic analysis yielded five equally parsimonious trees (length 389 steps, CI=0.2571, RI=0.7051), a strict consensus (length 392 steps, CI=0.2551, RI= 0.7021) of which produced two trichotomies. These results reinforced those from previous molecular analyses (Fagua et al., 2016; Regier et al., 2016) with some disagreement, consistent with historical conclusions made based on morphology. Mapping character distribution onto a recent molecular based phylogeny (Regier et al., 2012) revealed promising characters for subfamily and tribal delimitation



stains||endoskeleton||de-scaled moths||systematics||histology