Theses and Dissertations

Issuing Body

Mississippi State University


Forde, Connie M.

Committee Member

Olinzock, Anthony A.

Committee Member

Prince, Debra L.

Date of Degree


Original embargo terms

MSU Only Indefinitely

Document Type

Dissertation - Campus Access Only


Instructional Systems and Workforce Development

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


College of Education


Department of Instructional Systems and Workforce Development


The study involved a total of 60 students with 30 in each of 2 introduction to keyboarding classes, 1 online and 1 face-toace class. The students’ t-test scores were used to determine if statistical differences existed between the two groups at the p < .05 level of significance. This research examined the impact of the mode of instruction: online versus face-toace in keyboarding and its relationship to keyboarding achievement with reference to speed, technique and accuracy. A causal comparative design was used for this study. Data for the research were collected using the skill and technique evaluations of the participants. The techniques of the students were observed by the same teacher and a score was given according to a technique rubric. The instrument used to measure speed and accuracy was a timed writing of 5-minute duration. The beginning speed for the online and face-toace classes did not show any significant difference. The ending speed was higher for the face-toace students than the ending speed for online students. Both the online group and the face-toace group increased their speeds significantly by the end of the study. The beginning technique scores for the face-toace class were significantly higher than the online class. At the end of the study, there was no difference in the technique scores of the online and face-toace class. It appears that technique can be taught in both environments with appropriate instructional materials, media, and teacher direction. The face-toace group made significantly fewer errors than the online group at both the beginning and end of the study. There was a meaningful relationship between technique and accuracy found in this study and a meaningful relationship between technique and speed. This shows that proper technique is indicative of both higher speed and fewer errors. Also, there was a meaningful relationship between GPA and speed and accuracy. It is recommended that schools offer keyboarding online because offering the class online will be meeting the needs of so many.