Theses and Dissertations

Issuing Body

Mississippi State University


Xu, Jianzhong.

Committee Member

Davis, James E.

Committee Member

Hare, R. Dwight

Committee Member

Bean, Suzanne M.

Date of Degree


Document Type

Dissertation - Open Access


Elementary, Middle, and Secondary Education Administration

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


College of Education


Department of Leadership and Foundations


This study examined the relationships between a social-emotional learning program and the 5 dimensions of emotional intelligence and whether the relationships were moderated by gender. The problem addressed in the study was the lack of research focused on the development of emotional intelligence at the middle school level. The participants included 28 middle school students from a southeastern state who engaged in a 36 hour social-emotional learning program facilitated by a public university. The BarOn EQ-i:YV was administered pre and post. Demographic data including age, gender, race, and school type were also gathered. Data were analyzed using a one-way repeated measure MANOVA in which gender served as an attribute variable. The independent variables for this study included the attribute variable of gender and the treatment variable (IMPACT program). The dependent variables were the 5 dimensions of the EQ-i:YV (intrapersonal, interpersonal, stress management, adaptability, and general mood). The MANOVA found no interaction between the treatment and gender, but it did show a significant main effect for the treatment. Separate univariate tests showed significant relationships between the treatment and four of the five dimensions of emotional intelligence: interpersonal, stress management, adaptability, and general mood. Specifically, the findings revealed that the IMPACT program significantly increased participants’ emotional intelligence in these four areas. The MANOVA also showed a significant effect for gender. The univariate tests showed one significant gender difference relating to the interpersonal dimension; females scored significantly higher than did males on both the pre- and post-tests with a moderate effect size. While not significantly different, females also scored higher than did males in three other dimensions (intrapersonal, stress management, and general mood) on both the pre- and post-tests. As there is hardly any research that focuses on both the effectiveness of social-emotional learning programs with middle school students and the role of gender, further related research is recommended. Additionally, further research should examine the effectiveness of condensed versus traditional one year delivery models for social-emotional learning programs.



adaptability||stress management||general mood||intrapersonal||interpersonal||middle school||emotion regulation||emotion||social-emotional learning||emotional intelligence