Theses and Dissertations


Masanori Ota

Issuing Body

Mississippi State University


Henington, Carlen

Committee Member

Kane, Harrison

Committee Member

Underwood, Ray Joe

Committee Member

Arnault, Lynne

Committee Member

Doggett, Richard

Date of Degree


Document Type

Dissertation - Open Access


Educational Psychology

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D)


College of Education


Department of Counseling and Educational Psychology


The Response to Intervention (RtI) model is an identification model for Specific Learning Disability (SLD), one of the 13 disability categories identified under the Individual with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) of 2004. The RtI model has been proposed as an alternative model to the discrepancy model (e.g., intelligence quotient-achievement discrepancy model). In the RtI model, students’ responsiveness (e.g., levels of performance and slopes of progress) yields their eligibility for special education. However, to date, research that examined the validity of the RtI model (e.g., examination of intervention responsiveness with students with academic deficits) has been limited in the area of mathematics. The purpose of this study was to examine the responsiveness of elementary-aged students, with and without SLD, to interventions for mathematics calculation. It was hypothesized that students with mathematics deficits would demonstrate progress after receiving an empirically-derived intervention, regardless of their placement in general or special education. It was also hypothesized that students with mathematics deficits would demonstrate satisfaction with intervention procedures and self-efficacy with their progress after receiving an empirically-derived intervention. Students with and without SLD were selected based on specific criteria for this study (e.g., a skill deficit). To examine these hypotheses, for each student, an intervention was selected using an experimental analysis. The effects of the intervention on mathematics calculation were examined using single subject design. Maintenance on instructional materials and generalization from instructional-level to grade-level materials were examined. Social validity (e.g., satisfaction) of interventions and self-efficacy of students were also assessed. The results of the study indicate that empirically-derived interventions were effective in enhancing the calculation skills of students with and without SLD and maintaining their skills during and after the intervention phase. However, the students with and without SLD did not generalize their calculation skills to grade-level materials. The students demonstrated high levels of satisfaction with the interventions at the end of the interventions and enhanced their self-efficacy across the study. The study partially supported the validity of the RtI model in the area of mathematics such that the RtI model may be reliable in identification of students with SLD in mathematics calculation.



responsiveness to intervention||mathematics||Specific Learning Disability