Theses and Dissertations

Issuing Body

Mississippi State University


Chambers, Janice E.

Committee Member

Crow, John Allen

Committee Member

Pruett, Stephen B.

Committee Member

Ross, Matthew K.

Committee Member

Carr, Russell

Date of Degree


Original embargo terms

Visible to MSU only for 2 years

Document Type

Dissertation - Open Access


Environmental Toxicology

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


College of Veterinary Medicine


Environmental Toxicology Program


Organophosphates (OPs), such as nerve agents and insecticides, potently inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Oximes, such as the currently FDA approved oxime 2-PAM, remove the OP from the inhibited enzyme. 2-PAM is effective against select OPs and cannot effectively pass the blood-brain barrier to attenuate OP induced CNS damage. Our laboratory has synthesized a series of substituted phenoxyalkyl pyridinium oximes (Patent number: 9,227,937) that have demonstrated increased survival rates compared to 2-PAM. This research investigated 1) in vitro oxime reactivation of rat, human, and guinea pig serum BChE after inhibition by nerve agent and insecticidal OPs; 2) in vitro determination of reactivation kinetic rate constants for OP inhibited human and rat serum BChE and electric eel AChE after inhibition by a sarin surrogate and paraoxon; 3) intranasal delivery of oximes to reactivate brain AChE in vivo after inhibition by a sarin surrogate. Novel oxime 15 demonstrated significant broad spectrum reactivation of OP-inhibited rat serum BChE while novel oxime 20 demonstrated significant broad spectrum reactivation of OP-inhibited human serum BChE. All tested oximes were poor reactivators of OP-inhibited guinea pig serum BChE. Kinetic analysis of reactivation for NIMP and paraoxon human and rat serum BChE and electric eel AChE demonstrated differences in the second order rate constants. Oxime 20 demonstrated reactivation efficiency for both NIMP and paraoxon inhibited rat and human serum BChE and electric eel AChE more effectively than 2-PAM. Intranasal delivery of either oxime 20 or 2-PAM showed attenuation of NIMP-inhibited brain AChE inhibition in select brain regions and select time points. Oxime 20 demonstrated a larger window of effectiveness but neither oxime attenuated brain AChE inhibition in the hindbrain for any time point or for any brain region at the ten minute time point. These data suggest that reactivation of OP-inhibited BChE may be contributing to the observed increases in survival seen with our oximes. Novel oxime 20 demonstrated reactivation efficacy towards both BChE and AChE inhibited enzyme and a rapid entry into the brain after intranasal delivery. Having an oxime that can be effective in a multitude of ways would be of great value to medical and military personnel.