Theses and Dissertations

Issuing Body

Mississippi State University


Reynolds, Daniel B.

Committee Member

Brown, Ashli E.

Committee Member

Shaw, David R.

Committee Member

Mills, J. Anthony

Committee Member

DuBien, Janice L.

Date of Degree


Original embargo terms


Document Type

Dissertation - Open Access


Plant and Soil Sciences (Agronomy)

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


College of Agriculture and Life Sciences


Department of Plant and Soil Sciences


Distinguishing 2,4-D and dicamba herbicide formulations in cotton and soybean tissue is challenging in regulation of crop injury from these herbicides. Additionally, stewardship of 2,4-D and dicamba technologies is important to maximize their longevity and efficacy. Research was conducted to (1) characterize cotton and soybean response to various formulations of 2,4-D or dicamba with or without glyphosate, (2) develop a method for classifying these formulations in crop tissue, and (3) optimize use of chloroacetamide herbicides in dicamba systems for mitigation of selection pressure on dicamba. Formulations evaluated include dicamba diglycolamine (DGA), dimethylamine (DMA), N,N-Bis-(3-aminopropyl) methylamine (BAPMA), and DGA plus potassium acetate (KAc); and 2,4-D DMA, acid, isooctyl ester (ESTER), and choline. Weed management by the chloroacetamides s-metolachlor and acetochlor was evaluated with applications preemergence (PRE), early postemergence (EP), late postemergence (LP), PRE followed by (fb) EP, PRE fb LP, and EP fb LP. Cotton and soybean response differed by 2,4-D and dicamba formulation, and glyphosate presence. Cotton yield was reduced by 200 to 500 kg ha-1 following exposure to 2,4-D choline or DMA relative to acid or ESTER. Glyphosate presence led to a reduction in cotton and soybean yield of 377 and 572 kg ha-1, respectively. Exposure to dicamba DMA resulted in a 263 kg ha-1 reduction in soybean yield relative to dicamba DGA, and glyphosate presence reduced yield by 439 and 246 kg ha-1 in cotton and soybeans, respectively. Chemometric analyses generated models capable of up to 85% accuracy in identifying dicamba formulation in cotton and soybean tissue, and up to 80% accuracy in identifying 2,4-D formulation. Split chloroacetamide applications improved cotton yield up to 60%, reduced weed densities up to 90%, and improved control up to 56% relative to single applications. Cotton height was reduced up to 23% if a single chloroacetamide application was made. Soybean yield was maximized following any chloroacetamide application timing except PRE alone, and weed control was reduced up to 31% following single chloroacetamide application relative to split applications. These results will aid regulatory bodies in managing use of new weed control technologies and will assist producers in stewarding these new technologies.