Theses and Dissertations



Priddy, Matthew W.

Committee Member

Bian, Linkan

Committee Member

Mujahid, Shiraz

Committee Member

Barrett, Christopher

Date of Degree


Original embargo terms

Embargo 2 years

Document Type

Dissertation - Open Access


Mechanical Engineering

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D)


James Worth Bagley College of Engineering


Department of Mechanical Engineering


The overall goal of this work is to create an open-source digital twin of the wire arc directed energy deposition process using robot operating system 2 for interpass temperature regulation of a maraging steel alloy. This framework takes a novel approach to regulating the interpass temperatures by using in-situational infrared camera data and a closed loop feedback control that is enabled by robot operating system 2. This is the first implementation of robot operating system 2 for wire arc directed energy deposition and this framework outlines a sensor and machine agnostic approach for creating a digital twin of this additive manufacturing process. In-situ control of the welding process is conducted on a maraging steel alloy demonstrating interpass temperature regulation leads to improved as-built surface roughness and more consistent as-built hardness. An evaluation of three distinct weld modes: Pulsed MIG, CMT MIX, and CMT Universal and two primary process parameters: travel speed and wire feed speed was conducted to identify suitable process windows for welding the maraging alloy. Single track welds for each parameter and weld mode combination were produced and evaluated against current weld bead metrics in the literature. Non destructive profilometry and destructive characterization were performed on the single track welds to evaluate geometric features like wetting angle, dilution percentage, and cross sectional area. In addition, the role of material feed rate on heat input and the cross sectional area was examined in relation to the as-built hardness. The robot operating system 2 digital twin provides a visualization environment to monitor and record real time data from a variety of sensors including robot position, weld data, and thermal camera images. Point cloud data is visualized, in real time, to provide insight to the captured weld meta data. Capturing in-situ data from the wire arc directed energy deposition process is critical to establishing an improved understanding of the process for parameter optimization, tool path planning, with both required to build repeatable, quality components. This work presents an open-source method to capture multi-modal data into a shared environment for improved data capture, data sharing, data synchronization, and data visualization. This digital twin provides users enhanced process control capabilities and greater flexibility by utilizing the robot operating system 2 as a middleware to provide interoperability between sensors and machines.

Available for download on Friday, May 15, 2026