Student final projects created as part of coursework for ME 4133/6133 Mechanical Metallurgy with Dr. Matthew Priddy.
Kyle A. Taylor, Eric Cleckner, and Jeffery Garrett
The material to be explored for the purpose of this project relates to the Aluminum alloys used in the majority of modern engine “heads” and a number of engine “blocks”. The Aluminum used for these engine applications vary slightly across different manufacturers in their processing, structure and ultimate properties, despite their nearly identical performance applications. Part of the interest in this particular subject is the slight variations across manufacturing that result in different performance. Regardless of idiosyncrasies, these Al alloys are expected to perform under varying temperatures, with the ability to elastically deform and return to their original shape. They also must be able to handle high internal stress and vibrations.
The application of this material is straightforward, as the ultimate performance is what drives a top-down analysis of this material. While it is widely used in the automotive industry, it is worth noting that it is primarily used in smaller vehicles. It is more common for large engines with high displacements, especially in trucks, to have engine components made of cast iron material.
Will McKelvey, Evan Robertson, and Justin Yates
We want to portray the Al 6061 manufacturing and machining processes and how these affect the mechanical properties of the material. We also want to portray the strength and weaknesses and the reasons why it is used in certain applications.
Reed McNeal, Patrick Camacho, Haley Petersen, and Mary Watson
Inconel 690 (Alloy 690) is a high-chromium nickel super alloy. This alloy is used in many ways, mostly in a setting where corrosion is a concern. The alloy is very resistant to corrosion in an aqueous media as well as a high temperature atmosphere. This report will identify the structure and properties of Inconel 690 to determine the reliability and durability in an extreme setting.
Hunter C. Smith and Gordin Smith
Titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V was chosen for examination, more specifically, the Properties and Performance of the alloy. The students will share the responsibility of examining the attributes of the material. The team members participate evenly in performing research, producing calculations, and constructing the final report. Contained herein is the information gathered through research conducted thus far.
The performance of the material will be related to the processing methods of the material. This relationship forms the basis of cost analysis. The students will examine the atomic characteristics and crystalline structure to determine the effects of the alloyed materials on properties such as yield strength and strain. The alloy is to be compared to similar materials (alloys; pure titanium) to determine the influence of the specific interstitial elements on the properties of the material. The selected alloy is used in multiple industries and applications due to its innate properties, performance, and the cost to benefit ratio. The cost of titanium increases production cost versus traditional steels, but titanium’s strength and weight reduction make it more appealing in high performance applications. Industries that both use and benefit from this alloy include the following: aerospace, marine, power generation, offshore oil, and medical. In the aerospace field, titanium alloys offer lighter weight alternatives to steel alloys, and this titanium alloy is often used alongside steel alloys without the fear of galvanic corrosion from elevated levels of dissimilarity. The alloy is also beneficial in the marine and offshore oil industries due to its corrosion resistance; the alloy does not react significantly with salt water and therefore will last vastly longer in these applications compared to steel. This property stems from the tendency of titanium, and aluminum, to form a thin coating of its own oxides as a protective layer against further corrosion. Corrosion rates of Ti-6Al-4V for specific applications appear in Figure 1. In the power generation industry, power turbines cycle for extended periods of time under considerable loads; therefore, titanium’s fatigue resistance and low thermal conductivity provide strength and longevity in common steam turbine blades. Innovative prostheses use titanium as a lightweight framework capable of resisting cyclic loading induced by everyday motion. Due to its high performance and “corrosion proof” properties, the material is bio-compatible, meaning that it can be used in the human body with no adverse effects; it has an innate ability to join with human bone. Some other medical implementations include the following: spinal fusion cages, maxi-facial prosthetics, pins, screws, bone plates, rods, wire, expandable rib cages, posts, and finger and toe replacements. This research provides students with a greater understanding of titanium’s uses under engineering considerations in industrial applications in accordance with the principles learned in Mechanical Metallurgy at Mississippi State University.
An Analysis of the Effects of Process, Structure, and Properties on the Performance of the Ti6Al4V Alloy
Brad Jay Sampson and Loubna Ifqir
Ti6Al4V (pronounced Ti-64), is a titanium alloy used in a variety of engineering applications including the aerospace, automotive, and biomedical industries. Ti6Al4V is made up of a combined ɑ-β microstructure, which provides it with many valuable properties such as high strength, low weight, high melting point, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility.  For years, casting and forging have been the traditional processes used for the manufacturing of Ti6Al4V components, but recent interest in the additive manufacturing of Ti6Al4V through the Electron Beam Melting (EBM), Selective Laser Melting (SLM), and Directed Energy Deposition (DED) methods has been gained. The goal of this paper is to provide each author and reader with an understanding of the Ti6Al4V alloy, by encompassing the characteristics of Ti6Al4V into a process-structure-property-performance (PSPP) map. This will be accomplished by reviewing a growing body of literature related to Ti6Al4V. Also, a comparative analysis of the traditional manufacturing and additive manufacturing of Ti6Al4V will be performed, while exploring the benefits and limitations of both.
Jase Tatum, Bryson Miller, John Howell, and Aaron Alexander
Wear resistance is an invaluable performance metric for most metallic components found in mechanical systems. Our research focused on AR400, a steel alloy known for its wear resistance capabilities, in an effort to determine what factors might be attributed to its performance in wear applications. After establishing the processing techniques and resulting material structures that give AR400 such an edge in extreme wear conditions, our goal is to determine indicators of wear resistance that can be used to distinguish excellent wear resistant alloys from average or subpar performers against wear.
Noah Slack and Clint Balch
Stainless steels can be separated into four families based on the microstructure of the material: Austenitic, Ferritic, Martensitic, and Duplex. Each family provides a specific set of advantages and disadvantages, and material selection should be based on the specific application the material will be used for. For this study, the processing, microstructure, and performance of the four families of stainless steels will be compared in the context of medical device applications. The most important factors in medical device materials are biocompatibility, surface properties, mechanical properties and life span/corrosion resistance. This study will focus on medical devices that will be permanently implanted inside the human body.
Each of these properties is dictated by the microstructure, which can be controlled by element composition and processing methods. For each family of SS, different processing methods will be compared. Heat treatment, cold finishing, solidification, homogenization, and quench rate will be studied and how different mechanical properties are affected. Once a clear overview of processing has been established, it will then be apparent how each processing method affects microstructure. The microstructure of each will be defined by: grain structure, atomic structure, crystalline structure and the chromium oxide surface layer. Perhaps the most practical component of the study, microstructure will allow us to predict mechanical properties that ultimately govern performance. The scope of the study being limited to implanted medical devices will ultimately influence which material is best. Wear resistance, cost, resistance to fatigue failure, etc. are all important factors. Based on potential performance of each alloy, 316L was chosen as the focus. 316L will be examined using the PSPP method and its potential use in the medical field will be discussed. To demonstrate the effect that different properties will have on the performance of a product, four sample parts made of each of different alloys will be compared using digital FEA via Creo parametric. This will reveal stress profiles and the difference in reaction between the families.
Ihab Moutawakil and abdelmounem boukraa
A Processing-Structure-Properties-Performance (PSPP) map simply summarizes knowledge on the behavior of a given materials system. This is a helpful tool that may successfully serve as a standard means of communication on the physical and chemical mechanisms that regulate the performance of a materials system, as well as guidance on the sort of data necessary to correctly characterize that materials system as a whole. This article provides a literature review of how stainless-steel properties are affected by different treatment techniques in addition to a step-by-step methodology for creating a map for any materials system and then uses data regarding these methods to construct a map for a stainless steel produced via additive manufacturing
Design of Process-Structure-Property-Performance Road Map of Titanium Alloy Constructed using additive Manufacturing
othmane omalek and anas rochdi
This article provides critical data concerning a system’s approach that incorporates processing, structure, property, and performance (PSPP) linkages applied on titanium materials. To acquire basic insights and knowledge of materials behavior, we need to build reasonable (PSPP) connections. This article will help gather data for any materials system to create the PSPP map and then uses those techniques to create a map for a Titanium made with additive manufacturing. In addition, it explains the current methods, techniques, and equipment used in a variety of structure treatment of titanium materials, as well as the processing concerns and precautions that apply. The metallurgical background showing the principles used in titanium treatment is also discussed, with respect to alloy classifications, and structures. Designers will be able to modify process parameters and understand the impact on performance using this integrated approach, allowing for design and optimization of these highly visible manufacturing processes.
Jarrett D. Hawkins
A process-structure-properties-performance map will be created for these alloys focusing on the modification of the structure or composition and outlining the processes required and the affected properties. A thorough review of different chemical alloys, grain refining methods, and grain boundary compositions for several alloys and their corresponding property effects. Also plan to review material treatment processes and standard refining methods for stainless steels. The performance of these metals will be evaluated for property requirements in regards to strength, toughness, with an emphasis on corrosion resistance.
Charlie S. Wilcher and Trevor Davus
Duplex stainless steel’s durability, formability, and resistance to corrosion make it the primary steel option of the pulp and paper industry. The harsh environments found in certain aspects of this industry, such as in bleach plants, digesters, liquor vessels, and any piping where corrosive liquids may be passed, require the previously mentioned properties that duplex stainless steel 2205 offer. The structure and properties of duplex stainless steel, as well as the processes it undergoes, allow for it to withstand these environments. Research into the structure and properties of duplex stainless steel and the processes it undergoes will indicate how duplex stainless steel 2205 is not only the best option for the pulp and paper industry, but also how it enhances the industry’s abilities.
Morgan Calhoun and Caitlin Cade
Cobalt Chrome alloys, in particular cast Co-Cr ASTM-F75, are often used as the material for medical implants due to a combination of material properties: high strength, stiffness, temperature endurance, and wear / corrosion resistance. We aim to demonstrate and discuss what characteristics make it such a desirable material in the production of metallic biomedical implants
Albert R. Nicholson, Jake Clemens, Spencer Shumate, and Adam Cooper
Presentation Powerpoint regarding details of O1 Tool Steel
Jonathan Wellman, Tate James, Robbie Christman, and Brian Broom
AISI 1020 is widely used in many different industries due to its high strength, high ductility, high machinability, and good weldability. AISI 1020 has a number of applications. Low carbon steel can be used on a macroscale to build bridges, and low carbon steel can be used on smaller scales such as Lawnmower blades. Low carbon steel is the material of choice for lawn mower blades because of its ability to bend before it breaks. The ductile attribute of low carbon steel also has many other benefits.
Michael O. Fleming
This presentation discusses the processing, structure, properties, and performance of Ti-6Al-7Nb in relation to use as a surgical implant.
James Aaras Ross Brundege
Titanium alloys, such as Ti-6A1-4V, used as biomaterials possess great characteristics compared to other alloys such as stainless steel alloys. Characteristics such as biocompatibility, enhanced corrosion, strain, and fatigue resistance provide amazing benefits from these alloys. Providing an understanding of Ti used in biomedical applications and production can provide insight into its benefits and limitations as well as the areas of potential improvement for future study.
Haley E. Holland, Razan Khadka, Lee Marble, and Kaleb Tutor
The overall objective of this project was to construct a process-structure-property-performance (PSPP) map for a chosen metallic material. The material chosen by the group is tungsten (W). Tungsten is a rare, naturally occurring element and is usually found in the form of ores. It is known predominantly for its ability to withstand extreme temperatures, as well as its high tensile strength. The PSPP map displays many specifications of tungsten in each of the four categories and further details regarding each specific linkage, or subcategory, within the map are written throughout the research paper.
Along with the four specific categories outlined by the PSPP, specific tungsten applications are also explained in detail. Each of the four group members compiled his or her own detailed description of said application in order to bring a real-world situation into the project.