Theses and Dissertations


Raju Pokharel

Issuing Body

Mississippi State University


Grala, Robert K.

Committee Member

Grebner, Donald L.

Committee Member

Grado, Stephen C.

Committee Member

Cooke, William H., III

Date of Degree


Document Type

Dissertation - Open Access


Forest Resources

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


College of Forest Resources


Department of Forestry


Woody residues are byproducts with high lignocellulosic content, such as mill residues, logging residues, and other woody waste. This study estimated the impact of different mill characteristics, procurement attributes, constraints, and geospatial features on the utilization of woody residues to produce bioenergy by primary forest products manufacturers in the southern United States. Data were collected using a mail survey, and USDA and Esri geodatabases. Data analysis was conducted using analysis of variance, two-stage least squares, binary logit, and spatial logistic regression models. Approximately 70% of mills utilized woody residues for bioenergy purposes and 11% were willing to utilize additional logging residues to produce electricity. Mills were willing to pay US$12 (2012 dollars) per metric ton of logging residues at the mill gate and haul them for up to 93 kilometers. Mills with a larger capacity to utilize woody residues were more willing to utilize additional logging residues, pay a higher gate price, and haul them over longer distances. Regarding a mill type, pulp, paper, and paperboard mills and composite wood products mills were the largest woody residue utilizers and were willing to increase utilization of logging residues, pay higher prices, and haul them over longer distances. Utilization of woody residues increased with a processing capacity increase, equipment upgrades, and lower transportation costs logging residues. Mill willingness to utilize additional logging residues was higher for mills with the larger utilization of woody residues, lower quantities of disposable mill residues, anticipated equipment upgrades, and low importance for lack of storage space. Mills were more likely to utilize additional logging residues within proximity to a sawmill; pulp, paper, and paperboard mill; and a major road system, and less likely if a mill was in the vicinity of a river, forest, and mill producing other forest products. Results will help formulate future bioenergy policies, guide biomass energy investments and financial incentives, and help mill and land managers make more informed decisions regarding production and utilization of woody biomass. Future research is needed to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing logging residues by other facilities such as power plants and bioenergy facilities.