In this study, 206 teachers, 35 school board presidents, and 37 superintendents/principals (n = 278) were surveyed regarding their views of effective leadership behaviors demonstrated by school leaders with dual role responsibilities through serving as both a school principal and as a superintendent in small rural school districts. Data were collected through use of the Leadership Behavior Description Questionnaire Form XII and the Leadership Behavior Description Questionnaire Form XII Self. Of the 12 leadership domains assessed through use of this measure, statistically significant differences were yielded on 6 of the 12 leadership areas: Representation; Demand Reconciliation; Tolerance of Uncertainty; Persuasiveness; Initiation of Structure; and Role Assumption. Superintendents/principals reported lower scores in these areas than did teachers and/or school board presidents. Implications of these findings are discussed.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Included in

Education Commons



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.