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Youth have the capacity to drive positive change in their communities through active and engaged citizenship (AEC). Teen leadership programs provide youth with opportunities to develop the skills necessary to participate as partners in community problem-solving efforts. Situated in relational developmental systems metatheory, this study examined how cluster membership based upon demographic characteristics, ethical factors, and problem-solving disposition impacted AEC. The findings indicated significant differences between clusters for AEC, civic duty, and civic skills. These differences were predominately observed through membership in long-term or short-term leadership programs, gender, enrollment in honors/AP courses, ethical views, and problem-solving disposition. Youth leadership practitioners should consider avenues for infusing problem-solving and character development in gender inclusive program curricula to increase the likelihood for contributing.



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